The Russian deputy envoy in particular threatened "negative consequences" against the US if it continued with any more airstrikes and accused the British ambassador of "colonial hypocrisy".
"We have to think about negative consequences, negative consequences, and all the responsibility if military action occurred will be on shoulders of those who initiated such doubtful and tragic enterprise," said Vladimir Safronkov.
The Russian envoy also accused the UK's representative, Matthew Rycroft, of putting forward "unprofessional arguments and accusations" against Russia.
Rycroft said that Russia had been "humiliated by its failure to bring to heel a puppet dictator entirely propped up by Russia, Hezbollah and Iran."
"The greatest war criminal of all, Bashar Assad, has now been put on notice," said Rycroft.
The US ambassador, Nikki Haley, told the security council the US was "prepared to do more, but we hope that will not be necessary."
"The United States will not stand by when chemical weapons are used. It is in our vital national security interest to prevent the spread and use of chemical weapons."
Egypt's response was more muted, saying that the "Syrian people were the real victim of a proxy war between conflicting parties.""We are fed up with regret and the statements of condemnation because of a humanitarian tragedy that has devastated the lives of the Syrian people," said Amr Abu Atta.