Nearly all observers consider the 2018 Egyptian presidential elections to be neither free nor fair. At least five major candidates, including Sami Anan and Ahmed Shafiq, were either sidelined or jailed in the lead up to the vote.
Moussa, a little-known politician before entering the race, had endorsed Sisi just days before registering. Most observers believe he enlisted at the regime's request to avoid a single-candidate race.
A coalition of eight Egyptian opposition parties and some 150 pro-democracy public figures had called for a boycott of the vote, calling it an "absurdity" befitting "old and crude dictatorships".
In the lead up to the 26-28 March vote, authorities toyed with various measures to increase turnout to lend the vote credibility. In the end, turnout was 41.05 percent, down from the 47.45 percent Sisi won during his first election in 2014.
Invalidating votes are seen as safe ways to protest against President Sisi, who has overseen a sweeping crackdown on dissent since assuming office in 2014. Tens of thousands of Egyptians have been detained in recent years — mostly Islamists of the now-outlawed Muslim Brotherhood, but also secularists and activists of various stripes.
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